Measurements of Radiofrequency Radiation with a Body-Borne Exposimeter in Swedish Schools with Wi-Fi

Our research group published recently a study on radiofrequency (RF) radiation in schools using an exposimeter. RF emissions in the classroom were measured by the teachers in order to approximate the children’s exposure. Teachers in grades 7–12 carried a body-borne exposimeter, EME-Spy 200, in school during 1–4 days of work. Eighteen teachers from seven schools participated. The mean exposure to RF radiation ranged from 1.1 to 66.1 μW/m2. The highest mean level, 396.6 μW/m2, occurred during 5 min of a lesson when the teacher let the students stream and watch YouTube videos. Maximum peaks went up to 82,857 μW/m2 from mobile phone uplink.  The exposure levels varied between the different Wi-Fi systems, and if the students were allowed to use their own smartphones on the school’s Wi-Fi network or if they were connected to GSM/3G/4G base stations outside the school. An access point over the teacher’s head gave higher exposure compared with a school with a wired Internet connection for the teacher in the classroom. All values were far below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection’s reference values, but most mean levels measured were above the precautionary target level of 3–6 μW/m2 as proposed by the Bioinitiative Report. The length of time wireless devices are used is an essential determinant in overall exposure. Measures to minimize children’s exposure to RF radiation in school would include preferring wired connections, allowing laptops, tablets and mobile phones only in flight mode and deactivating Wi-Fi access points, when not used for learning purposes.

In Table 10 in the article examples of methods to reduce children’s exposure to RF radiation in schools are given

1. Wired connection to both teachers and students and no wireless networks or devices in school is the optimal choice. If this is not possible:
2. Wired connection to each classroom
a. to the teacher’s laptop,
b. for the students to download large files and videos.
3. To reduce exposure from Wi-Fi networks in school:
a. turn off Wi-Fi access points when not used for learning purposes,
b. position Wi-Fi access points outside of classrooms,
c. use directional Wi-Fi access points, which radiate into the direction of the client’s device.
4. Keep laptops and tablets in flight mode when Internet is not needed for learning purposes.
5. Wired connection to a landline telephone in each classroom could minimize the need for mobile phones for contact.
6. Mobile phones, including smart phones, could be left at home or collected in turned off mode. If allowed, they should be carried only in flight mode during school hours.



Monsanto, glyphosate (Roundup) and Swedish cancer epidemiologist

Documents are now becoming publicly available in the US glyphosate litigation. Here are some of the first results indicating secret work by the Swedish cancer epidemiologist Hans-Olov Adami for Monsanto. The whole document can be found here.

It includes Monsanto emails regarding Hardell study rebuttal:

  • “We are creating a scientific outreach network of prominent epidemiologists in Europe and the U.S., including Dimitrios Trichopoulos (Harvard/Greece) and Hans-Olov Adami (Harvard/Sweden), who will assist us in defending glyphosate. we are planning meetings with them and with four prominent epidemiologists in each of the following areas; UK (this meeting is set for August 17th), Scandinavia (targeting sept.), Italy/Greece (targeting August), Netherlands/France/Germany (targeting Sept.) and the US (targeting October). The purpose of these meetings is to raise awareness of the limitations of Hardell’s research and gain support for glyphosate in the epidemiologic community worldwide.”
  • “Hans-Olav and Dimitrios were good friends of John Acquavella. We worked with them a lot when John was here.”

John Acquavella was epidemiologist at Monsanto defending herbicides. This attack on our studies concerns our findings of increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and use of herbicides including glyphosate. Glyphosate is a large product for Monsanto used in e.g. genetically modified crops.

These documents are new and were filed 28 October 2017. The above paragraph goes back to activities in 1999. There are much more documents on glyphosate that Monsanto has been forced to disclose in the US litigation. However, they are so new that they are not organized yet.

Maybe this is the tip of an iceberg similar to that released about tobacco and lung cancer since before in US litigations revealing scientists with hidden industry work. Regarding Adami – his industry defense of cancer causing agents is especially remarkable since he at the same time gained large grants from the Swedish Cancer Fund aimed at preventing cancer.

More about ’Corporate Ties that Bind’ can be read in a book published this year. Some of the Adami industry activities can be found in .e.g. Chapter 9 ’Greenwashing: The Swedish Experience’ by Bo Walhjalt.

Finally it should be noted that I am not aware of any contacts from Monsanto regarding our studies. I have not contacted journalists about our findings. I am quite neutral to Monsanto with a professional attitude to that company.

Increasing brain tumor rates in Sweden

Recently we published a new article on brain tumor rates in Sweden using the Inpatient Register for the time period 1998-2015. Also incidence data using the Swedish Cancer Register were analyzed for the same time period. The full article can be found here, see also abstract below.

We used the Swedish Inpatient Register (IPR) to analyze rates of brain tumors of unknown type (D43) during 1998-2015. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) per 100,000 increased with +2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +1.27, +2.86% in both genders combined. A joinpoint was found in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) 1998-2007 of +0.16%, 95% CI -0.94, +1.28%, and 2007-2015 of +4.24%, 95% CI +2.87, +5.63%. Highest AAPC was found in the age group 20-39 years. In the Swedish Cancer Register the age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 increased for brain tumors, ICD-code 193.0, during 1998-2015 with AAPC in men +0.49%, 95% CI +0.05, +0.94%, and in women +0.33%, 95% CI -0.29, +0.45%. The cases with brain tumor of unknown type lack morphological examination. Brain tumor diagnosis was based on cytology/histopathology in 83% for men and in 87% for women in 1980 in the Cancer Register. This frequency increased to 90% in men and 88% in women in 2015. During the same time period CT and MRI imaging techniques were introduced and morphology is not always necessary for diagnosis. If all brain tumors based on clinical diagnosis with CT or MRI had been reported to the Cancer Register the frequency of diagnoses based on cytology/histology would have decreased in the register. The results indicate underreporting of brain tumor cases to the Cancer Register. The real incidence would be higher. Thus, incidence trends based on the Cancer Register should be used with caution. Use of wireless phones should be considered in relation to the change of incidence rates.

5G Appeal sent to EU

5G Appeal sent to EU

September 13, 2017

Scientists and doctors warn of potential serious health effects of 5G

We the undersigned, more than 180 scientists and doctors from 36 countries, recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for human health and the environment have been fully investigated by scientists independent from industry.  5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment……

We urge EU:

1.To take all reasonable measures to halt the 5G RF-EMF expansion until independent scientists can assure that 5G and the total radiation levels caused by RF-EMF (5G together with 2G, 3G, 4G, and WiFi) will not be harmful for EU-citizens, especially infants, children and pregnant women, as well as the environment.

2.To recommend that all EU countries, especially their radiation safety agencies, follow Resolution 1815 and inform citizens, including, teachers and physicians, about health risks from RF-EMF radiation, how and why  to avoid wireless communication, particularly in/near e.g., daycare centers, schools, homes, workplaces, hospitals and elderly care.

3.To appoint immediately, without industry influence, an EU task force of independent, truly impartial EMF-and-health scientists with no conflicts of interest to re-evaluate the health risks and:

  • To decide about new, safe “maximum total exposure standards” for all wireless communication within EU.
  • To study the total and cumulative exposure affecting EU-citizens.
  • To create rules that will be prescribed/enforced within the EU about how to avoid exposure exceeding new EU ”maximum total exposure standards” concerning all kinds of EMFs in order to protect citizens, especially infants, children and pregnant women.

4.To prevent the wireless/telecom industry through its lobbying organizations from persuading EU officials to make decisions about further propagation of RF radiation including 5G in Europe.

5.To favor and implement wired digital telecommunication instead of wireless.

Read the full appeal here.





Oxidative effect of low-intensity microwave radiation in the model of developing quail embryos


Objective: Exposure of humans to low-intensity microwave (MW) radiation under some circumstances leads to several medical conditions, including headache, chronic fatigue, and even cancer. Mechanisms of these effects in many cases may depend on oxidative stress caused by MW exposure. Our study aims to assess oxidative stress features in embryonic cells under low-intensity MW exposure in the first stage of embryogenesis. Methods: Embryos of Japanese quails were exposed in ovo to low-intensity MW of global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 MHz (0.25 μW/cm2) during 158-360 h discontinuously (48 c – ON, 12 c – OFF) before and in the initial stages of development. The levels of superoxide (O2•−), nitrogen oxide (NO•), and 8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) were assessed in cells of 38-h, 5-, and 10-day exposed embryos and compared to the control group. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence was used for assessment of GSM modulation role in MW-induced oxidative effects. Results: A significant persistent overproduction of superoxide, nitrogen oxide, and 8-oxo-dG in GSM MW-exposed embryonic cells during all periods of analyses was detected. Conclusion: Exposure of developing quail embryos to low-intensity MW of GSM 900 MHz during the first stages of embryogenesis resulted in a significant overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide and oxidative damages of DNA in embryonic cells. These effects were interpreted to be depended on the GSM modulation of MW.

The article can be found here.

Comment: This is a very interesting and important study. Embryos of Japanese quails were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation using GSM 900 MHz. The average intensity of RF radiation on the surface of hatching eggs in the exposed group was 2 500 μW/m2 (0.25 μW/cm2). SAR was calculated to 3 μW/kg. A control group with no exposure was used. A statistically significant overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage of DNA in living cells was reported. The exposure was far below the guideline still provided by ICNIRP for RF radiation as 2 to 10W/m2 depending on frequency and 2 W/kg to the brain. The results in the study show that the ICNIRP guidelines are outdated, see our previous discussion. Moreover, using a safety factor of 10 would give 250 μW/m2 as guideline, a level easily exceeded in many places, see our measurements at Stockholm Central Railway Station and Stockholm Old Town.

Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

A recent article evaluated the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro in mice.

Abstract: Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices.

One of the authors, SMJ Mortazavi, made the following summary of the results:

  1. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) decreases the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs).
  2. Decreased neuronal differentiation in NSCs was also observed in cells exposed to RF-EMF.
  3. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz RF-EMF did not influence the viability and apoptosis of NSCs.
  4. Active neurogenesis from the stem cells occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, which could possibly get affected by accumulating dose of exposure to mobile phone RF-EMF.
  5. Further research is needed to verify if exposure to mobile phone RF-EMF during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism in the offspring.

Comment: These results are on mice but are anyhow of interest and add to the evidence that maternal use of mobile phone during pregnancy may increase the risk of child behavioral problems, see blog July 11, 2017.

Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk

Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO. In the international Interphone study on mobile phone use and glioma risk, glioma was associated with occupational ELF-EMF exposure in recent time windows. The authors concluded that such exposure may play a role in late stage carcinogenesis of glioma.

We assessed life time occupations in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 on e.g. use of wireless phones and glioma risk. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated.

Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years before diagnosis odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6-1.3, p linear trend = 0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ μT-years, respectively.

We concluded that we found an increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure. No statistically significant interaction was found between exposure to ELF-EMF and use of wireless phones (exposure to radiofrequency radiation; RF-EMF). They were independent risk factors for astrocytoma grade IV.