Recently we published an article on use of mobile and cordless phones and the risk of brain tumors. It has been published in Reviews on Environmental Health (DOI 10.1515/reveh-2013-0006).
A summary (abstract) is given in the following.
Background: Wireless phones, i.e., mobile phones and
cordless phones, emit radiofrequency electromagnetic
fields (RF-EMF) when used. An increased risk of brain
tumors is a major concern. The International Agency for
Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization
(WHO) evaluated the carcinogenic effect to humans
from RF-EMF in May 2011. It was concluded that RF-EMF
is a group 2B, i.e., a “possible”, human carcinogen. Bradford
Hill gave a presidential address at the British Royal
Society of Medicine in 1965 on the association or causation
that provides a helpful framework for evaluation of
the brain tumor risk from RF-EMF.
Methods: All nine issues on causation according to Hill
were evaluated. Regarding wireless phones, only studies
with long-term use were included. In addition, laboratory
studies and data on the incidence of brain tumors were
Results: The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity,
temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of
increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were
fulfilled. Additional evidence came from plausibility and
analogy based on laboratory studies. Regarding coherence,
several studies show increasing incidence of brain
tumors, especially in the most exposed area. Support for
the experiment came from antioxidants that can alleviate
the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in
biologic effects, although a direct mechanism for brain
tumor carcinogenesis has not been shown. In addition,
the finding of no increased risk for brain tumors in subjects
using the mobile phone only in a car with an external
antenna is supportive evidence. Hill did not consider all
the needed nine viewpoints to be essential requirements.
Conclusion: Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic
neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF
emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic
to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the
IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need
to be urgently revised.